A French research paper released on 16 December has demonstrated a zoonotic potential for scrapie prion proteins after serial transmission of scrapie prions in a number of tgHu mice models resulted in the propogation of phenotypically identical prion proteins to those causing sCJD in humans.
The paper has been reported in a number sources.
The paper is of interest as new or emerging information.
Created 29/9. JT
A new and exceptionally virulent form of potato blight, which is also resistant to most modern pesticides is spreading fast. Literature and news on the new potential threat, picked up by IBIS, alludes to the emergency from 1845, when the destruction of potato crops in Ireland, caused by the same microorganism lead to many deaths and immigration. What's even worse, the pathogen is polyphagus and it can attack multiple hosts.
Is this a real threat and if so what is going to be the balance of containting the pathogen versus damage in 2014?
"The potato is, like the turkey, a relative newcomer, for it reached European plates less than 300 years ago. It led to a population boom. Within 70 years of the crop arriving in Ireland, the number of citizens there rose from two to nine million. Many had a diet that consisted only of that single item, plus milk or cheese – which, monotonous though it is, will support life. Everywhere, its adoption led to an increase in childhood survival. Its effects on health are shown by the dramatic increase in height, of up to an inch, that followed every introduction.
Then came disaster. In 1845, a plant disease spread throughout Europe, with Ireland the hardest hit. As the tubers rotted, more than a million died and almost a million and a half emigrated.
The late blight, as the condition is called, is due to the mould Phytophthora infestans – the “infectious plant-destroyer”. It multiplies at great speed, sending out spores that blow in the wind or float down streams. Once these reach a host, they hatch to give cells that can swim and can sense a nearby target. In warm, wet weather, these cells can live their life in just four or five days to produce a new and abundant generation that lays waste to fields.
Fossilised DNA from ancient leaves kept in museums – one of which comes from the famine year – show that a mixture of strains attacked the plants, but that one in particular dominated for 50 years. It then disappeared and was replaced by new forms of blight, but many of those, too, have become extinct.
Now we face an emergency close to that of 1845. Within the past decade, the DNA of late blight shows that a single new and exceptionally virulent form is spreading fast. The first British examples of clone 13 A2, as it is called, emerged in 2005. Within three years that single variant, among all the billions of moulds, made up three quarters of cases, and is set to replace them all. It attacks almost all potato varieties, resists pesticides and causes a much more aggressive infection than did earlier forms. It has now reached India and China, the biggest producers of all. In its belligerence and spread, it reflects many other plant diseases that have raced across the globe in this new era of international trade.
We are too fixed in our dietary habits. Of the 200,000 kinds of flowering plant, only about 300 have ever been grown for food, and most now play only a tiny part. If potatoes become expensive treats, we will face a crisis less challenging than that of the Irish famine, but a crisis nevertheless. Even as we do, the cost of the flour, alcohol and sugar that go into the final course of the celebratory Christmas meal has dropped.
What were luxuries have turned into staples, and what once kept the poor alive may soon become a luxury. Quite what rare delicacy will fill the hole on the festive plate nobody knows. A diet of cake alone would be dull indeed. Perhaps, as Marie-Antoinette almost put it, “Let them eat chips”."
China Fisheries Channel | Machrobrachium aquaculture "steel shrimp" / "iron shell shrimp"
Gaoyou City: abstract: 2011-2014, Jiangsu Gaoyou part Macrobrachium aquaculture ponds appear "slow growth" symptoms, shrimp farmers called "steel shrimp" and further spread trend, especially in 2014, according to the survey "steel shrimp" a very serious problem, there are 4 acres Shrimp above are subject to different degrees, to the majority of shrimp farmers brought a ... China Fisheries channel reported, 2011-2014, Gaoyou part Macrobrachium aquaculture ponds appear "slow growth" symptoms, shrimp farmers say as "steel shrimp" and further spread trend, especially in 2014, according to the survey "steel shrimp" a very serious problem, there are more than 4 million acres of shrimp ponds are subject to different degrees, to the majority of shrimp farmers brought a certain economic losses and tremendous mental stress, even related to the negative effects of social disharmony.
Prevention and control of the symptoms
we conducted a preliminary study, the relevant circumstances described below, for reference. First, the symptoms Macrobrachium "slow growth" during the greenhouse cultivation of symptoms is not obvious, and to enlarge mid-May on aquaculture for nearly a month after another Macrobrachium "slow growth" symptoms in rosenbergii 5 cm After molting interval prolonged, growth was slow, a lot of females Tangkou 5 cm, 6 cm in males sexual maturity, shrimp shell hardens, berried females, males grow "big and long" big blue claw, food intake in general has declined, but there will be "a lot of eating and not grow up" phenomenon, seriously affecting the yield and efficiency farming.
Second, the cause analysis so far, resulting in Macrobrachium "slow growth" the direct cause of the symptoms is unclear. Most experts believe that broodstock for breeding infected with a virus that leads to slow growth; some experts believe that the process is in Breeding existence of "hatchery no conservation measures, when selection of germplasm is not strictly required, nursery temperature is too high, the breeding process heavy use of drugs "and other issues are the cause seed quality deterioration caused by slow-growing important factor; there are some industry insiders believe that the long-term breeding process rosenbergii fed high-protein diet and daily management is not in place caused by slow growth. However, the current Macrobrachium happen "slow growth" status quo Tangkou symptoms of view, is often a shrimp farm supply of shrimp pond mouth symptoms appear together, rather than giant river prawn farming area while the outbreak of contiguous " slow growth, "the quality of their own health symptoms, seen the emergence of giant river prawn seed Gaoyou area," one of the main factors that slow growth, "the.
Third, a comprehensive prevention and control measures in the event of giant river prawn breeding process "slow growth" symptoms, there is no good treatment methods, the most important is the need to attach great importance to the majority of shrimp farmers, the introduction of high-quality seed, promote ecological farming, reduce stocking density, optimize breeding mode, the maximum possible reduction of Macrobrachium this "slow growth" symptoms. 1, the ponds dry pond, with particular emphasis on winter plowing pond and exposure, especially excessive sludge pond mouth and then happened "slow growth" Symptoms Tangkou should be thoroughly clear pond, 150 per acre available kg of lime; 2, choose quality health shrimp. To strengthen management, to improve the conservation measures and strict selection requirements shrimp farm, increase investment, optimize breeding process, the implementation of ecological breeding; 3, control stocking density, as the volume control in rosenbergii Fangmiao 6-7 tails while planning stocking ratio of good boiler seedlings, greenhouse seedlings, seedlings flood; 4, due to lower feed grade, do not feed high protein content of feed, long-term use can affect the metabolism of Macrobrachium now Many shrimp farmers feed protein used in more than 40%, even 44%, should be controlled to 36% -38%; 5, animal feed, such as snails, clams and other feed as little as possible, do not feed, because Great fresh food contaminants, concentrated flavor, moisture and more perishable, easily lead to deterioration of water quality put into ponds, but also easy to breed bacteria into virus; 6, strengthen management culture in the late, keep the water clean, attention should be separated into the drainage regular good diversion, change at the end of work, but before the disease-prone, feeding some of the vitamin c, immune polysaccharides, etc., increase the resistance of Macrobrachium with immunity, reduce stress, reduce the occurrence of disease.
Fourth, reduced losses and measures Macrobrachium "slow growth" Symptoms unfortunate event occurs, it is recommended shrimp farmers were fine management, reduce unnecessary losses, reduce farming costs, stable breeding efficiency or reduce losses. 1, timely sales, in the size of 6 cm on the timely capture the market, because the giant river prawn sexual maturity, growth slowed down, the finished shell reproductive shell, instead of shell growth, relatively large-sized shrimp After harvesting can promote the growth of small size shrimp; 2, to enhance water quality management, good quality environment can promote the growth of Macrobrachium shell recommended shrimp farmers often "sets water", once every 3-5 days, each set of water 20-30 cm; 3, must lower feed grade, it is recommended that all shrimp farmers feed protein content of 40% or less, preferably fed protein content of about 36% of the feed can be, but also pay attention to check rosenbergii feeding situation, Shrimp on the line as long as enough to eat, must not investing more feed wastage, efforts to reduce costs; 4, for Macrobrachium "slow growth" particularly serious symptoms appear Tangkou recommended shrimp farmers in dry pond before the end of August, you can consider switching raised catfish, shrimp and other species, to increase revenue Tangkou.
Author: Gaoyou City Aquatic technical guidance station Dongxue Hong [Keywords]: Aquatic recruit's prawn farming eggs Ray Cool Beautiful Flowers favorites invite Latest Reviews Recommend - See more at: http://aquatic.animalhealth.org/ article / china-machrobrachium-steel-shrimp-problem-spreading # sthash.CvGDEF4q.dpuf
The pathology of ‘scale drop syndrome’ in Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer Bloch, a first description S Gibson-Kueh1 etal. Journal of Fish Diseases Volume 35, Issue 1, pages 19–27, January 2012.
Viral nervous necrosis (VNN) owing to nodavirus and systemic iridoviral disease are the two most important viral diseases posing a threat to the culture of marine food fish in Asia. ‘Scale drop syndrome’ (SDS) was first reported in L. calcarifer by farmers in Penang, Malaysia.
Forecast from paper:
With the increasing culture of L. calcarifer, SDS is expected to occur more frequently. SDS affects larger more valuable fish and will therefore be associated with greater economic losses.
Issue created by JT 20/7/15
The following are excerpts taken from articles below in Related Reports:
According to Merck (http://aqua.merck-animal-health.com/diseases), Pancreas Disease (PD) is an important economic disease of European farmed Atlantic salmon. It can cause significant losses due to morbidity, mortality and reduced production. Chronic PD has also been known as sudden death syndrome (SDS). The causative agent was only isolated in 1995 and was shown to be an alphavirus, now known as Salmon Pancreas Disease Virus (SPDV). Recent studies have indicated that it is very similar to Sleeping disease virus of rainbow trout. PD has been described in Scotland, Norway, Ireland, France and the west coast of the USA in farmed Atlantic salmon. Due to the difficulty of isolating SPDV from natural outbreaks of PD and the widespread distribution of Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis virus (IPNV), which can mask the SPDV and the disease in farmed salmon, PD is significantly under diagnosed in the field. Transmission is primarily due to direct fish-to-fish contact, but the involvement of other marine reservoirs such as molluscs, crustaceans and wild fish, or vectors such as sea lice, cannot be ruled out.
Pancreas Disease has cost Norwegian, Scottish and Irish aquaculture industry hundreds of millions in the past few years and the industry is looking to grow resistant fish population.
Norway has battled PD for four years, and now on top of this there is a new virus variant. Outbreaks of PD are commonly caused by virus variant SAV 3. However, some recent outbreaks north of Hustadvika in central and North Norway are caused by a new virus variant, called SAV 2. It appears that SAV 2 is a milder variant of the viral disease.
In order to fight PD, the country is divided into two zones. In the Southern zone the aim is to limit damage from the disease, and in the Northern zone eradication is targeted. Hustadvika is seen as the barrier between the North and South. Ms Landsverk said she believed that the fight in the North against PD has been successful. PD with infection by virus variant SAV 3 has not been found north of Hustadvika after 2009. However, now is the time to evaluate whether the current strategy is working, or whether we need to make some changes," said Kristina Landsverk, Director of the Food and Safety Authority. The Norwegian Seafood Federation (FHL) has asked the Ministry of Fisheries and Food Safety Authority (FSA) for changes in the fight against PD north of Hustadvika.