The Australian Seafood CRC
http://www.seafoodcrc.com/home/education-and-training/research-travel-grants/2012-712-amoebic-gill-disease-agd-in-scotland-and-ireland-impact-control-procedures-and-investigations.html2012/712 Amoebic Gill Disease (AGD) in Scotland and Ireland – Impact, Control Procedures and Investigations
By Dr Alistair Brown and Dr Carlos Zarza
Amoebic Gill Disease (AGD), caused by Neoparamoeba perurans is currently the most serious disease facing the Tasmanian salmon industry. Each year, this disease costs the industry millions of dollars in terms of loss of production potential, stock losses and treatment costs. Additionally, it goes without saying that AGD has serious animal welfare implications. In recent years, AGD has started to emerge in salmon farming operations worldwide, causing significant stock losses. This presents a unique opportunity for the Tasmanian industry to conduct collaborative research with our international counterparts to speed up our understanding of N. perurans and investigate alternative treatment options. By visiting the Northern Hemisphere in March, we will have the opportunity to influence the direction of their research and investigations for the upcoming Northern Hemisphere summer which will hopefully be beneficial to the Tasmanian industry.
Discussions were held with technical experts from Scotland, Ireland and the USA. In total, eight farms were visited in Scotland and Ireland
Is it only a matter of time before AGD becomes a major problem in Norway?
~1 year for AGD to go from Ireland to Scotland.
~1 year for AGD to spread throughout Scotland from Argyll to Shetland.
How long will it take to make the crossing from Shetland/Faroe to Norway or did AGD come from the 2006 Norwegian outbreak?
Are the conditions right for AGD in Norway?
Is this a climate change issue or a cyclical warm current event?
What role will wild migrating salmon play in the spread of AGD to farms?
What would be the consequence of an AGD incursion in Norway?
What are your thoughts? Please comment.
UPDATE: Oct 2013 AGD in Faroe Islands.
UPDATE: 15 Nov 2013 AGD Hits Norwegian Fish Farms Again this Autumn - The Fish Site
IBIS forecast correct: AGD -> Ireland > Argyll-Scotland > Shetland > Faroe > Norway
Researchers from the Western Australian Department of Fisheries say that detection and characterization of viruses of the genus Megalocytivirus in ornamental fish imported into Australia is an an emerging risk to national biosecurity.
Is this an International issue?
Ornamental fish can carry many OIE listed diseases, but there are no International standards, guidelines or recommendations for the ornamental fish industry to use.
Nolan, D., Stephens, F., Crockford, M., Jones, J. B. and Snow, M. (2014) Journal of Fish Diseases.
Article first published online: 30 JAN 2014
Detection and characterization of viruses of the genus Megalocytivirus in ornamental fish imported into an Australian border quarantine premises: an emerging risk to national biosecurity.
Department of Fisheries, Government of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia
This emerging issue is about the controversy surrounding whether or not ISAV has been found in BC wild salmon.
Cohen hands down report with 75 recommendations [Nov 1 2012]
Hundreds of articles have been captured by AquaticHealth.net (too many to list). If you want to read more, go to My Workspace (or Reports for non-registered users) to pull-up all of the reports.
This new disease has been known as early mortality syndrome and is now commonly referred to as acute hepatopancreatic degenerative necrotic syndrome (AHDNS). Mass mortailty of shrimp from AHDNA has been reported in China (2009), Vietnam (2010) and Malaysia (2011). In June 2011, provinces of the Mekong Delta suffered unprecedented losses with tiger shrimp in 40,000 hectares of farm area affected. Over 11,000 hectares of shrimp farms in Bac Lieu have been destroyed. In 6,200 hectares of shrimp farms in In Tra Vinh, about 330 million shrimp have died causing a loss of over VND12 billion. In Soc Trang, 20,000 out of 25,000 hectares of shrimp farms have been destroyed, causing VND1.5 trillion (US$75 million) in losses. Initial evidence led investigators to beleive the disease was caused from microsporidiosis of the hepatopancreas. Relavent reference in the scientific literature may be; Kasetsart J. (2009). The Effects of Microsporidian (Thelohania) Infection on the Growth and Histopathological Changes in Pond-reared Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Nat. Sci. 43: 680 - 688. These views maybe changing with the disease now possibly related to liver necrosis. In Mekong Delta of Vietnam, AHDNA has been associated with the use of pesticides.
UPDATE JULY 2013
Since the original summary report EMS has continued to cause significant losses in South East Asia. Articles appearing on the internet have been captured by AquaticHealth.net and most of the breaking stories are listed below. There are many more articles than those listed and these are available through our search the archive function. They can be retrieved by setting your preferred date range and entering EMS into the general search term and tags box.
The aetiology has been determined by Prof. Don Lightner, April/May 2013:
Lightner’s team found that EMS is caused by a unique strain of a relatively common bacterium, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, that is infected by a virus known as a phage, which causes it to release a potent toxin. The bacterium is transmitted orally, colonizes the shrimp gastrointestinal tract and then produces a toxin that causes tissue destruction and dysfunction of the hepatopancreas, the shrimp’s digestive organ.
Some countries have implemented policies that restrict the importation of frozen shrimp or other products from EMS-affected countries. Lightner said frozen shrimp likely pose a low risk for contamination of wild shrimp or the environment because EMS-infected shrimp are typically very small and do not enter international commerce. Also, his repeated attempts to transmit the disease using frozen tissue were unsuccessful.(reference nid:77100 see links below).
Forecast for EMS 12-06-2014 (working not shown)
EMS will be found in Indonesia in 2014 in the dry growing season July/Sept. YES/NO. Likelyhood estimate?
EMS will be found in India 2014 in the rainy growing season June/Sept. YES/NO. Likelyhood estimate?
EMS will be found in the Philippines by the end of 2014. YES/NO. Likelyhood estimate?
Is it only a matter of time before EMS becomes a major problem in Indonesia, Philippines or India?
SHRIMP NEWS INTERNATIONAL REPORT (See links) FEB 26 2012
"There are also unconfirmed reports of EMS in southern Thailand near the border with Malaysia and on the island of Sumatra in Indonesia, around Medan, which is across the Strait of Malacca from Malaysia."
As of June 2014 reports of EMS in Indonesia remain unconfirmed.
How long will it take to make the crossing from Malaysia/Thailand to Indonesia/India or has EMS already arrived?
What would be the consequence of an EMS incursion in these countries?
What are your thoughts? Please comment.
February 2011 Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome (EUS) is spreading in AfricaThe Republic of South Africa is the 4th African country to report the epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) on its territory, following earlier notifications by Botswana, Namibia and Zambia. This disease of fresh-water (fin)fish affects a large number of species and is caused by a fungus (oomycete) Aphanomyces invadans. While the three previous discoveries all occurred in the Chobe-Zambezi river basin, this new discovery was made in the far south of South Africa, in a dam on the Palmiet river, close to Grabouw in the Western Cape province. Lesions were discovered in wild finfish that have been living in the dam for a long time, while recently introduced rainbow trout for a fish farming operation, remained unaffected. EUS is an OIE-listed disease. The OIE Reference Laboratory for this disease is based in Thailand (AAHRI, Bangkok), but a laboratory twinning programme is underway with the University of Zambia (UNZA) . The FAO has produced an information leaflet regarding this disease, which is now also available in French, thanks to the financial support of the OIE Sub-regional Representation for Southern Africa, based in Botswana, one of the affected countries Download the brochure in English (4.3 Mb) Source: http://www.rr-africa.oie.int/en/en_index_annex84.html
Issue created 4 May 2016 following the detection of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in a Norwegian reindeer in March 2016, announced late April 2016.
This is the first detection of CWD in Europe and in reindeer. Previously it had been restricted to North America (USA and Canada) and South Korea (following importation of deer/reproductive material from Canada).
For over one decade many fish species from the Sea of Galilee (Lake Kinneret - Isreal) have been suspected of dying from a mysterious disease.
The disease has been found in about 15% of the lakes fish population and also in fish ponds in the Hula Valley. So far, the disease is known to affect species such as St. Peter's Fish (tilapia), silver carp, carp, and mullet.
The disease was investigated in September 2011 by Isreal's Ministry of Agriculture Veterinary Services, but at that time no pathogen had been identified. Recent Ministry of Agriculture investigations have identified the problem is worsening in tilapia, which may be linked to the discovery of a virus affecting the eye.
The Ministry says that the virus poses absolutely no peril to public health, to those either eating the fish or swimming with them.Mon 2015-Feb-2 http://aquatic.animalhealth.org/article/researchers-discover-new-virus-threatening-global-tilapia-stocks
Identification of a novel RNA virus. Tilapia Lake Virus TiLV
An international scientific team led by researchers at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health and Tel Aviv University has identified and characterized a novel virus behind massive die-offs of farmed tilapia in Israel and Ecuador, which threatens the $7.5 billion global tilapia industry.
A paper in the journal mBio describes tilapia lake virus (TiLV) and provides information needed to fight the outbreak.
Known in its native Middle East as St. Peter's fish and thought to be the biblical fish that fed multitudes, tilapia provides inexpensive dietary protein.
The world's second most farmed fish, tilapia is also the basis of aquaculture employment in developing countries in Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East. (The United States is the leading tilapia importer globally.)
Since 2009, Israel has seen precipitous declines in tilapia, with annual yields plummeting as much as 85 per cent--highly unusual considering the fish is known to be relatively resistant to viral infections. Similar die-offs have been seen in Ecuador and Colombia.