LUMPY SKIN DISEASE - EUROPE (03): BOVINE, DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS, VACCINATION - ProMED Digest, Vol 58, Issue 91

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Date: Thu 20 Apr 2017
Source: European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) press release [edited]
<http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/press/news/170420>

The mass vaccination of cattle implemented in south-eastern Europe
successfully contained the outbreaks of lumpy skin disease in the
region in 2015-16. This is the main conclusion of an epidemiological
analysis carried out by EFSA in cooperation with countries affected by
the disease and those at risk.

This report follows EFSA's scientific advice published in August 2016,
recommending vaccination to minimise the number of lumpy skin disease
outbreaks in regions already affected or at risk.

"Despite the difficult epidemiological situation, all countries
involved in the data collection have shown a high level of commitment
and cooperation," said Alessandro Broglia, veterinarian at EFSA.

Closeness to affected farms and warm temperatures resulting in a
higher presence of the insects that transmit the disease are among the
factors responsible for the spread of the disease.

Recommendations
---------------
Experts made recommendations on how to improve data collection and
analysis. They also recommended laboratory confirmation of suspected
cases in vaccinated animals to differentiate the strains.

[Background information]
------------------------
Lumpy skin disease is an infectious disease of cattle, which causes
economic losses and occasionally is fatal. It is characterised by skin
nodules.

It was previously limited to southern and eastern Africa. After it was
confirmed in Turkey in 2013, the virus spread through south-eastern
Europe. As of 2016 the disease was detected in seven European
countries -- Greece, Bulgaria, the Former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia, Serbia, Albania, Montenegro, and Kosovo.

To produce this report EFSA experts worked with competent authorities
of Greece, Bulgaria, Albania, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the
former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, Turkey, Romania,
Croatia, and Kosovo. Further scientific advice will be provided at the
beginning of 2018.

[Ref: Lumpy skin disease: I. Data collection and analysis
<http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.4773/epdf>;
see comment below].

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ProMED Digest, Vol 58, Issue 91
Original text (summary): 

Today's Topics:

1. PRO/EDR> Foodborne illness - France: (ND) schoolchildren
(promed@promedmail.org)
2. PRO/AH/EDR> Lumpy skin disease - Europe (03): bovine, data
collection & analysis, vaccination (promed@promedmail.org)
3. PRO/EDR> Brown recluse spider - USA: (MI) nonstandard
location (promed@promedmail.org)

----------------------------------------------------------------------

Message: 1
Date: Fri, 28 Apr 2017 17:21:34 +0000
From: promed@promedmail.org
Subject: PRO/EDR> Foodborne illness - France: (ND) schoolchildren
To: promed-post@promedmail.org, promed-edr-post@promedmail.org
Message-ID:
<0100015bb5950893-a5743083-7e32-4d55-9766-2d20f685e4cf-000000@email.amazonses.com>

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FOODBORNE ILLNESS - FRANCE: (NORMANDY) SCHOOLCHILDREN
*****************************************************
A ProMED-mail post
<http://www.promedmail.org>
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
<http://www.isid.org>

Date: Fri 28 Apr 2017
Source: Punjab News Express [edited]
<http://punjabnewsexpress.com/world/news/300-students-fall-sick-due-to-food-poisoning-in-france-59999.aspx>

More than 300 students were taken ill on [Thu 27 Apr 2017] due to
suspected food poisoning in Rouen city in France, regional authorities
said. Children, aged between 3 and 12, reported symptoms of vomiting
and nausea after eating school lunches prepared at the same central
canteen, Xinhua news agency reported.

"The children were treated by a group of 100 healthcare workers
including, doctors, nurses, and rescue teams in 41 schools and 6
nurseries," Jean-Marc Magda, Director of Normandy and Seine prefect's
office, was quoted as saying by local media. 25 children were sent to
emergency services while the others were undergoing treatment at their
schools after noting that many were stricken.

"The children are cared for, then comes the time of the investigation.
At this stage, one can imagine everything: insufficient cooking, bad
handling, rules of hygiene not respected," Magda said.

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[A short incubation period (1-6 hours) of a foodborne illness with
nausea and vomiting without significant fever or diarrhea is usually
due to staphylococcal enterotoxin. The following information regarding
this entity is extracted from the US Food and Drug Administration's
Bad Bug Book available at <http://tinyurl.com/mqf6hjm>:

"In the diagnosis of staphylococcal foodborne illness, proper
interviews with the victims and the gathering and analyzing of
epidemiological data, are essential. Incriminated foods should be
collected and examined for staphylococci. The presence of relatively
large numbers of enterotoxigenic staphylococci is good circumstantial
evidence that the food contains toxin. The most conclusive test is the
linking of an illness with a specific food, or, in cases where
multiple vehicles exist, the detection of the toxin in the food
sample(s).

"In cases where the food may have been treated to kill the
staphylococci, as in pasteurization or heating, direct microscopic
observation of the food may be an aid in the diagnosis. A number of
serological methods for determining the enterotoxigenicity of _S.
aureus_ isolated from foods, as well as methods for the separation and
detection of toxins in foods, have been developed, and used
successfully, to aid in the diagnosis of the illness. Phage typing may
also be useful when viable staphylococci can be isolated from the
incriminated food, from victims, and from suspected carriers, such as
food handlers.

"A toxin dose of less than 1.0 microgram in contaminated food will
produce symptoms of staphylococcal intoxication. This toxin level is
reached when _S. aureus_ populations exceed 100 000 per gram.

"Foods that are frequently incriminated in staphylococcal food
poisoning include meat and meat products; poultry and egg products;
salads such as egg, tuna, chicken, potato, and macaroni; bakery
products such as cream-filled pastries, cream pies, and chocolate
eclairs; sandwich fillings; and milk and dairy products. Foods that
require considerable handling during preparation, and that are kept at
slightly elevated temperatures after preparation, are frequently
involved in staphylococcal food poisoning."

A very short incubation of a vomiting-associated illness (less than 1
hour) also suggests that the etiology might have been heavy metal
ingestion. A number of metals can cause this type of syndrome, which
is usually caused by the ingestion of a liquid that had been kept in a
metallic container. These metals include antimony, copper, tin, and
zinc. The illnesses are usually self-limiting and require only
symptomatic care. In addition to vomiting, other clues may include the
liquid being described as having a metallic taste. Identifying the
specific cause requires analysis of the food or liquid vehicle. Some
potential differences in the illnesses exist between causes, including
a longer incubation period (several hours) for zinc; vomiting and
diarrhea for tin; and blue or green vomitus for copper.

Maps of France can be seen at
<https://www.gite.com/art/france-map/map-of-france-regions.jpg> and
<http://healthmap.org/promed/p/7196>.
Rouen (<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rouen>) is a city on the River
Seine in the north of France. It is the capital of the region of
Normandy. Formerly one of the largest and most prosperous cities of
medieval Europe, Rouen was the seat of the Exchequer of Normandy
during the Middle Ages. It was one of the capitals of the Anglo-Norman
dynasties, which ruled both England and large parts of modern France
from the 11th to the 15th centuries. It's location in France can be
found on the above URL. - Mod.LL]

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