Pest or Disease

Multigene phylogeny reveals a new species and novel records and hosts in the genus Ramularia from Iran

Ramularia is a species-rich genus in the order Capnodiales (Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota) that includes numerous phytopathogenic taxa, several of which are economically important plant pathogens. In this study, six isolates of Ramularia were recovered from leaf spot symptoms on six herbaceous and woody plants from Guilan, East and West Azarbaijan provinces in the north and northwest of Iran. The isolates were studied by a polyphasic approach involving morphological and cultural data, and multi-gene phylogeny (ITS, TEF1-α, ACT, HIS, RPB2 and GAPDH). The isolates were grouped in three species clades of the R. eucalypti species complex. Of these, R. mali is recorded for the first time in Asia and R. glennii represents a new record for the mycobiota of Iran. Ramularia taleshina on Alnus subcordata is described as a new species. Ramularia taleshina is phylogenetically related to R. mali, but they can be differentiated by morphological and cultural characters as well as molecular data. Acalypha australis, Ficus carica and Platanus sp. are reported as new hosts of R. glennii, and Prunus cerasus and Vitis vinifera as new hosts of R. mali.

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Evidence of a Prototheca Zopfii Genotype 2 Disseminated Infection in a Dog with Cutaneous Lesions

Protothecosis is a disease caused by saprophyte aerobic unicellular algae belonging to the genus Prototheca. In dogs, it mainly occurs as a disseminated form, with initial clinical manifestations often referable to the gastrointestinal tract, followed by typical ocular and neurological signs. So far, Prototheca zopfii genotype 2 infection has been reported in severe forms of disseminated protothecosis, while in dogs has never been associated with cutaneous forms. In this study, we describe a case of Prototheca zopfii genotype 2 infection in a dog characterized by nodular and ulcerative dermatitis and with evidence of dissemination. In December 2015, a 5-year-old unneutered male English Setter dog was presented with a 4-month history of footpads ulcerations and multifocal nodular lesions (3–5 cm diameter) on both front limbs. Cytological examination of the aspirated fluid collected from all nodules revealed the presence of sporangic forms compatible with Prototheca spp. organisms. Suspected Prototheca spp. colonies were isolated from the aspirated fluid and identified as Prototheca zopfii genotype 2 by molecular methods.

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Cutaneous Exophiala oligosperma Infection in a Patient with Bullous Pemphigoid with a Review of the Literature

Phaeohyphomycosis is an infection caused by a heterogeneous group of melanized fungi. Human infections due to members of genus Exophiala are rare but may occur at any part of the body. We herein report a case of an 85-year-old male with a history of bullous pemphigoid who presented with a chronic, non-healing wound on his right dorsal hand for a month. Direct microscopy of a pus sample from the base of the ulcer revealed strands of pigmented, moniliform hyphae. The isolate was identified as E. oligosperma based on morphological characters and sequencing of the rDNA internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and partial beta-tubulin gene. The patient received a three-month course of oral itraconazole with no recurrence.

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Spontaneous Remission of Subcutaneous Scedosporiosis Caused by Scedosporium dehoogii in a Psoriatic Patient

To date, only one case of post-traumatic endophthalmitis caused by Scedosporium dehoogii has been reported, but its contamination or colonization might not be precluded due to the absence of pathogenic isolation and/or pathological examination. We report the first case to our knowledge of S. dehoogii-induced subcutaneous scedosporiosis in a psoriatic patient. A 58-year-old man with 5-year history of psoriasis vulgaris and immunosuppressant therapy developed pyrexia and multiple subcutaneous abscesses on both knees. Direct microscopy of the yellowish pus showed masses of bright green short spores. Skin biopsy revealed some branched septate hyphae within the granuloma. Two aspirated pus specimens collected at a 1-week interval produced white cottony colonies on Sabouraud dextrose agar. Bacterial cultures of one blood and two purulent samples were negative, and fungal culture of blood sample was not performed. The isolate was identified as S. dehoogii using β-tubulin phylogeny and species-specific PCR with primer MSDE1/MSA2.

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Role of the Inositol Polyphosphate Multikinase Ipk2 in Regulation of Hyphal Development, Calcium Signaling and Secretion in Candida albicans

Inositol polyphosphates are a family of inositol derivatives and ubiquitously distributed in various organisms. Their generation is catalyzed by inositol polyphosphate multikinases, which play essential roles in abundant cellular processes. However, little is known about the kinds and functions of inositol polyphosphate multikinases in the important fungal pathogen, C. albicans. In this study, we identified a C. albicans inositol polyphosphate multikinase, Ipk2. This kinase shares the conserved IPK domain and localizes in the nucleus. A strain with controllable expression of IPK2 was constructed using the inducible promoter of MET3. Down-regulation of IPK2 by addition of methionine and cysteine enhanced the ability of hyphal development, increased expression of hypha-specific genes and promoted transport of hypha-specific factors. Moreover, this down-regulation rendered increase in cytoplasmic calcium levels but decrease in cellular total calcium contents, indicating its role in regulation of calcium homeostasis. Assays of secretion and macrophage killing further demonstrated that Ipk2 negatively regulated secretion of degradative enzymes and damage to macrophages.

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Orchid Bee (Apidae: Euglossini) Communities in Atlantic Forest Remnants and Restored Areas in Paraná State, Brazil

In this study, we compare orchid bee communities surveyed in four forest remnants of the Atlantic Forest and four reforested areas characterized by seasonal semi-deciduous forest vegetation in different successional stages (mature and secondary vegetation), located in southern Brazil. The sizes of forest remnants and reforested areas varied from 32.1 to 583.9 ha and from 11.3 to 33.3 ha, respectively. All reforested areas were located near one forest remnant. During samplings, totaling nine per study area, euglossine males were attracted to eight scent baits and captured with bait trap and entomological nets. Each forest remnant and its respective reforested area were sampled simultaneously by two collectors. We collected 435 males belonging to nine species of orchid bees distributed in four genera. The number of individuals and species did not differ significantly between different areas, except for a reforested area (size 33.3 ha), which was located far from its respective forest remnant.

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In vitro polyploidy induction: changes in morphology, podophyllotoxin biosynthesis, and expression of the related genes in Linum album (Linaceae)

Induction of tetraploidy was performed and podophyllotoxin production increased by upregulating the expression level and enzyme activity of genes related to its biosynthesis in tetraploid compared to diploidLinum album.

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Expression profile of desiccation tolerance factors in intertidal seaweed species during the tidal cycle

The transcriptional modulation of desiccation tolerance factors inP. orbicularisexplains its successful recuperation after water deficit. Differential responses to air exposure clarify seaweed distribution along intertidal rocky zones.

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Functional roles of the pepper leucine-rich repeat protein and its interactions with pathogenesis-related and hypersensitive-induced proteins in plant cell death and immunity

Pepper leucine-rich repeat protein (CaLRR1) interacts with defense response proteins to regulate plant cell death and immunity. This review highlights the current understanding of the molecular functions of CaLRR1 and its interactor proteins.

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